Walkyrie

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Message  Roland le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 15:50

Bonjour,
A côté des nombreux livres édités ou réédités à l'occasion de la sortie du film Walkyrie sur le 20 juillet 1944, deux publications intéressantes : un hors-série du Figaro avec de nombreuses photos et un dossier de 25 pages dans la revue Batailles qui délivre (enfin !) une vision critique de la "résistance allemande" dont Stauffenberg fut la figure de proue.

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Message  ricardo77 le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 16:05

on peut critiquer la méthode employée, par contre le but rechercher était plus que valable, surtout quand on voit les pertes civiles et militaires allemande des derniers moi de guerre...

si l'attentat n'avait pas échoué il y aurait eu un peu de justice et cet homme coupable de tant de choses n'aurait pas eu le plaisir de se suicider en homme libre.

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Message  tecumseh le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 16:14

ricardo77 a écrit:
si l'attentat n'avait pas échoué il y aurait eu un peu de justice et cet homme coupable de tant de choses n'aurait pas eu le plaisir de se suicider en homme libre.
Je me pose souvent cette question: Si la résitance allemande avait eu la peau de Hitler, quelle influence la mort de ce dernier aurait-elle eu sur le cours des évènements?
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Message  ricardo77 le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 16:28

tout dépend qui de la SS ou de la wehrmacht auraient prient le pouvoir.

il me semble qu'aux moment de walkyrie Göring est encore le suppléant d'hitler.

si Hitler était mort lors de cet l'attentat, le nouveau pouvoir après avoir arrêté les SS aurait proposé une armistice, que les Russes n'aurait peut être pas accepté.

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Message  Roland le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 18:08

"on peut critiquer la méthode employée, par contre le but rechercher était plus que valable, surtout quand on voit les pertes civiles et militaires allemande des derniers moi de guerre..." (Ricardo)

Je crois qu'il ne s'agit de critiquer ni la méthode qui importe peu, ni le but mais de dépasser la vision simpliste et superficielle habituellement donnée des comploteurs. Par exemple, en s'interrogeant sur ce qu'ils comptaient faire une fois au pouvoir.

Que serait-il advenu si Hitler était mort ? Sans doute, la guerre civile.

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Message  tecumseh le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 18:36

Tout à fait le sens que je voulais donner à la réflexion, Roland pouce !
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Message  ricardo77 le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 19:19

Roland a écrit:Que serait-il advenu si Hitler était mort ? Sans doute, la guerre civile.

je pense que non, car l'opération ne visait pas que la mort de Hitler, mais aussi a supprimer la SS.

si comme dans de le plan, la wehrmacht avait soutenu le nouveau chancelier, il n'y aurait pas eu de guerre civile.

le plan devait faire passer les SS pour des taitres au yeux du peuple et de la wehrmacht, vu la tension et la jalousie entre la SS et la wehrmacht, le plan aurait fonctionné.

on peut avoir des idées différente, la mienne est, quoi qu'il arrive, la disparition d'hitler et des SS ne pouvaient être que benefique a l'allemagne et au monde;

surtout comme je l'ai dit plus haut, vu le nombre de mort civils est militaires allemands des derniers mois de guerre, une boucherie inutile dans un pays perdue depuis deux ans. Même une guerre civile n'aurait pas fait tant de mort, ce qu'avait bien compris les conspirateurs de walkyrie.

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Message  Ming le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 19:25

Au monde, oui, à l'Allemagne c'est nettement moins sûr : non pas à cause des ss mais à cause des alliés, étant donné les clauses de reddition (sans conditions, selon le protocole décidé à Casablanca si mes souvenirs sont corrects) m'est avis que les soviétiques n'auraient sûrement pas été d'accord sur une paix aménagée considérant la venue d'un nouveau chancelier.
Il y aurait eu ensuite la question des crimes de guerre et contre l'humanité à régler, sans compter celles des camps de concentration, de prisonniers et j'en passe. La situation ne se serait en aucun cas réglée du jour au lendemain.

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Message  Roland le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 19:39

"Supprimer la SS", c'est toujours plus facile à dire qu'à faire. Mais ce n'était pas seulement la SS, une organisation tentaculaire qui avait entre autres choses le contrôle de tout l'appareil de sécurité (police criminelle, police politique, espionnage etc...) et des centaines de milliers d'hommes en arme qu'il aurait fallu éliminer mais aussi les membres du parti et, au delà, tous les partisans de Hitler dans l'armée et le peuple allemand (et il étaient très nombreux, même en 44 !).
Il eût fallu le soutien plein et entier de la Wehrmacht et là, il est fort douteux que cette dernière ait suivi des comploteurs qui apparaissaient, eux, comme des traîtres. Surtout lorsque ces derniers auraient annoncé leur intention de capituler sans condition et de cesser le combat non seulement face aux Occidentaux mais aussi face aux Soviétiques.
Les faits parlent d'eux-mêmes. Le 20 juillet, ce ne sont pas les SS qui écrasent la conjuration mais des soldats de l'armée de Terre et personne ou presque ne suit Stauffenberg et ses amis. On peut trouver ça dommage mais c'est comme ça.

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Message  ricardo77 le Lun 02 Fév 2009, 22:58

c'est pour sa que l'objectif principal de l'opération était de faire porter le chapeau au SS. Le peuple et la Wehrmacht fidèlent a hitler se serait alors raproché des conspirateurs pensent que le complot venait des SS.

le plan prévoyé aussi l'arrestation des hauts dignitaire proche d'Hitler, les troupes de réserves devait arrêter les SS un peu partout en Europe.

vu la fin de la guerre pour l'Allemagne, déffaite militaire sur tous les front, destruction des grandes villes et des zones industrielles par les bombardiers alliés, l'avancé irresistible de l'armée rouge, et les millions de mort et de prissionner des derniers mois de guerre, je pense que si Hitler était mort se 20 juillet 1944, la suite n'aurais était que meilleure.

et je termine sur une citation du général Tresckow "qu'importe que cela réussisse ou échoue, il faut le faire pour l'honneur allemand."
même si pour certain et encore de nos jour, Hitler et ses fanatiques sont plus une gloire qu'une honte... maleureu gri

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Message  naze le Mar 03 Fév 2009, 07:30

Au fait les SS ou Waffen SS c'etait une organisation allemande ou nazi dans les camps ?? La wehrmacht je le sais c'ets l'armée de terre allemande mais j'aimerais plus de precisions sur les SS .

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Message  Kalendeer le Mar 03 Fév 2009, 19:44

1) C'est pas le sujet

2) Il y a un topic suffisament complet sur les SS dans la partie "Axe", ou même l'en tête de l'article sur wikipédia, qui sont assez clairs pour te donner la réponse en quelque ligne.

Avant de poser n'importe quelle question qui te passe par la tête, essaies de chercher un peu, là tu me fais penser à ce feignant qui était venu nous demander la date de naissance d'Hitler -_-
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Message  naze le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 14:27

Non je suis pas un feignant puisque u veux pas m'aider je me nbarre de ce sujet tchuss.

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Message  tecumseh le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 16:11

Salut, Kal!
J'ai l'impression que t'as vexé Islaaamm spamafote . Tu Pourrais pa être un peu plus (juste un chouïa) accomodant? pouce (A propos de ce feignant qui était venu vous demander la date de naissance d'Hitler, t'avais répondu quoi? p17C'est juste de la curiosité malsaine Walkyrie 248453 )
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Message  Kalendeer le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 19:30

tecumseh a écrit:Salut, Kal!
J'ai l'impression que t'as vexé Islaaamm spamafote . Tu Pourrais pa être un peu plus (juste un chouïa) accomodant? pouce (A propos de ce feignant qui était venu vous demander la date de naissance d'Hitler, t'avais répondu quoi? p17C'est juste de la curiosité malsaine Walkyrie 248453 )

Rien, je suis pas méchante au point de m'acharner quand d'autres font déjà le boulot ^^"

Quant à Islaaam, si je n'avais pas été accommodante je l'aurai envoyé paître quand il a demandé "Mais Hugo Boss, ils ont fait des uniformes nazis ???" dans un topic où la première ligne du premier message indiquait que oui (donc soit Islaaam est stupide soit il ne prend même pas la peine de lire en entier un topic de même pas deux pages). Dans le genre tu as aussi le topic sur l'Ahnenerbe, où Islaaam est intervenu pour nous dire quoi ? Que le topic (une page et demi à ce moment là) était looooooong.
Malheureusement pour lui je ne suis pas patiente et si j'estime d'habitude que les questions les plus bêtes sont celles qu'on ne pose pas, parfois je me demande si ce constat est juste. Surtout en sachant que la sienne trouve une réponse facile et clair à quatre ou cinq endroits du forum minimum ainsi que sur wikiédia et surtout n'avait pas grand chose à faire dans le topic sur Walkyrie.
Donc voilà. Islaaam peut me traiter de méchante mais il n'empêche que pour moi, se plaindre qu'un topic de deux pages est trop long oui, c'est de la feignantise.


Bon, un peu plus dans le sujet, une question pour les connaisseurs :
Dans le film Walkyrie, on voit que la balance penche définitivement en faveur de la Tanière du Loup lorsque que l'officier des communications décide de bloquer les messages de Stauffenberg, puis les lignes de téléphone sont coupées. Or, quelques petites choses me chiffonnent :
-Dans le film on voit très peu Goebbels mais, d'après une source gratuite mais peu sûre (devinez qui, ça commence par Ir et finit par Ving), il avait fait couper les lignes de téléphone relativement tôt, ou en tout cas avant de joindre Hitler. Dans le film ça se passe dans l'ordre inverse, et on ne précise pas plus. Son rôle n'étant pas plus détailé que ça, est-ce que quelqu'un saurait à peu près ce qu'il a fait ? (je trouve l'explication d'Irving un peu fouillie, du coup j'avoue n'avoir pas compris tout ce qu'il racontait dans ce passage un brin surchagé).

-Le blocage est messages de Stauffenberg est-il réellement arrivé et, si oui, était-il spontané de la part du service des communications où Goebbels était aussi intervenu à cet endroit ?

-Toujours dans le film, Stauffenberg envoit des hommes prendre le contrôle des radios. Ensuite on ne sait rien de ce qui est arrivé sur ce plan là. Les radios ont-elles vraiment été prises d'assaut ?

Je vais aller relire le texte d'Irving sur le sujet, ce sera peut être plus clair à la deuxième lecture. Mais si quelqu'un avait même juste le lien d'un site fiable sur le sujet, je serai preneuse !
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Message  Maquis Surcouf le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 21:06

Bonsoir à tous,

Voivi pour toi Islaaam : http://deuxiemeguerremondia.forumactif.com/l-axe-f3/existe-t-il-une-difference-entre-waffen-ss-et-ss-t813.htm

Il faut parfois utiliser la fonction rechercher dans ce forum, cela évite des questions inutiles et d'en énerver certains clin doeil gri
Faut pas être vexé pour si peu mort de rir gri

Pour ce qui est du sujet, il est vrai que bon nombre de livres ressortent avec la sortie du film. On voit même le figaro, sortir quelque chose dessus, le magazine 2GM en a parlé également.

Je pense aller voir le film bientôt mais j'ai peur d'être déçu.

Amicalement
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Ps : Je ne savais pas que tu étais une fille Kaleender...
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Message  Kalendeer le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 21:19

Le film est pas mal, je m'attendais à une catastrophe parce que je trouve que Cruise ne sait pas jouer autre chose que lui même, mais finalement il s'est bien débrouillé.

Début un peu lent et pas génial ; mais dès que les choses commencent à bouger, ça bouge bien ! Ceux qui ne s'y connaissaient pas ont dû espérer jusqu'à la fin, et même en la connaissant, cette fin, ça se regarde très bien on se prend à espérer pour les personnages.

PS : Et pourtant, mes oreilles de fennec auraient dû te renseigner mort de rir gri c'est vrai, il a pas l'air d'une fille mon fennec ? (je vais lui rajouter des paillettes roses et quelques coeurs dessus, et puis en signature "j'M RoMmEl lol", hé hé)
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Message  Maquis Surcouf le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 21:23

D'accord, je donnerai mon avis apres le ciné. Tu n'es pas la première personne à me dire qu'elle a été agréablement surprise.

Oui tout à fait il a l'air d'une fennec ton fennec ^^
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Message  Kalendeer le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 21:25

Au cinéma, je suis regardante que quand je paye ma place. Assez bon public quand je paie pas. Très bon public quand c'est mon cadeau d'anniversaire pouce gri

Nan sincèrement, je saurai pas juger des uniformes et autres, mais moi qui m'attendait à une cata monumentale j'ai pas été désagréablement surprise. Après reste à voir si c'est juste historiquement parlant, mais vu que j'y connais pas grand chose (sauf un peu sur le rôle de Goebbels, le déroulement général et autre) je ne pourrai pas juger de la véracité des détails.
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Message  ricardo77 le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 23:44

Goebbels na rien a voir avec le complot, c'est aussi une des cibles, il est surment le plus grand partisan de Hitler, il se donnerat la mort quelques temps après lui d'ailleurs, 9 mois seulement après l'attentat

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Message  Kalendeer le Mer 04 Fév 2009, 23:51

Moui, c'est bien pour ça que je parle du rôle de Goebbels contre le complot en question...
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Message  ricardo77 le Jeu 05 Fév 2009, 00:33

d'après ce que j'ai lu, aucun role.

dans le film il y a la scène ou il passe le telephone au soldat venue l'arreter...
adaptation hollywoodienne de l'histoire a mon avis.

les communication rétablie peu après l'attentat, les ordres contre Stauffenberg ainssi que le bonne état de santé d'hitler tueront la conspiration dans l'oeuf...

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Message  naze le Jeu 05 Fév 2009, 08:04

Je vais regarder le film bientot moi Smile

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Message  Kalendeer le Jeu 05 Fév 2009, 09:38

Ce qu'on trouve dans la biographie d'Irving (désolée le copié coller mal agencé, mais je pars en voyage dans une heure donc pas le temps de corriger)
54: Valkyrie
THE day started routinely. The Goebbels ministry once again lectured outposts that the word propaganda was not to be used synonymously with ‘lies, duping the public, hypocrisy, and rabble-rousing.’1 At nine A.M. the court martial of Colonel Martin, Goebbels’ liaison officer to the Wehrmacht, began; Goebbels’ enemies, who were legion, had rigged the bench to ensure that his man got a stiff sentence.2 After Goebbels presided over his regular eleven o’clock conference Speer came over to show to the Cabinet ministers assembled in the theatre of the propaganda ministry some graphs demonstrating how arms output was increasing.3 Goebbels rounded off with a few well-chosen words and took Speer and Funk back to No.20 Hermann-Göring Strasse for a chat.4
At one o’clock the intercom buzzed. ‘Herr Minister is wanted by the Führer’s HQ—Lorenz is on the line.’ Heinz Lorenz was Dietrich’s deputy at the Wolf’s Lair.
He said: ‘Herr Minister, there has been an attempt on the life of the Führer. He has ordered an immediate announcement broadcast that he is alive and well.’ (The radio news was Goebbels’ exclusive domain.) Lorenz dictated the proposed text down the line.5 Goebbels had a direct phone link to the HQ via the Winterfeld-Strasse telephone exchange. Not many people were aware of that—least of all, apparently, those who had just tried to kill Hitler.6
Although Lorenz shortly phoned again to stress the urgency, Goebbels seemed not to grasp that point at all. He chose caution. A plot against their Führer? ‘You’ve got to soften such a psychological shock,’ he explained, and detailed Hans Fritzsche to draft 840 GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH
a well-modulated commentary to that end.7 Troubled by a recurring ear-ache, he turned to other business;8 he dispatched a telegram of condolences to Leni Riefenstahl on the death of her father, then withdrew, evidently for his regular nap.9
Nothing is known about his actions for several hours. It is true that soon after the assassin’s bomb exploded at Hitler’s feet at 12:45 P.M. he had ordered all regular telephone links cut while Himmler and Göring were called in.10 Goebbels had his own secret line; yet he appears to have done nothing more about the news until five P.M. Did he perhaps speculate on Hitler being dead?11 Was he waiting to see which way the cat jumped?
BY mid-afternoon suspicion at the Wolf’s Lair had narrowed to Colonel Claus Count Schenk von Stauffenberg, Fromm’s one-eyed chief of staff: he had slipped out of Hitler’s conference and flown pell-mell back to Berlin. Upon arrival there he assured Fromm, General Olbricht, and their fellow plotters that he had seen Hitler dead. The plotters’ signals began to go out at four o’clock, putting the army’s operation Valkyrie, which Goebbels had already encountered after that air raid eight months before, into effect. The scenario was that recalcitrant Nazis had bumped off their beloved Führer, necessitating martial law. The city commandant General Paul von Hase ordered Remer’s guards battalion to cordon off the government district, and he detailed other units to seize the radio station and propaganda ministry and arrest Dr Goebbels as one of the plotters—but in fact the biggest obstacle to any putsch in Berlin.12
When Remer, accustomed to obeying orders, issued them in turn to his men at Moabit one of them, Lieutenant Hans Hagen, smelt a rat. Formerly a member of the propaganda ministry and now the Nazi indoctrination officer attached to Remer’s battalion, he obtained permission to ask Goebbels himself what was going on. Arriving at the ministry on a motorbike pillion at five o’clock he told Regierungsrat Dr Heinrichsdorff, an old friend, that something very fishy was going on. Heinrichsdorff brought Hagen straight round to No.20 Hermann-Göring Strasse. Hearing of Remer’s unusual orders Goebbels sprang to his feet. ‘That’s impossible!’ he exclaimed. FlounGOEBBELS.
MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH 841
dering between panic and mistrust he asked Hagen whether this Major Remer was a loyal national socialist? He sent for Remer, then phoned the S.S. Leibstandarte, the most Hitler-loyal unit in Germany, at its barracks in Lichterfelde and told them to stand by.13
Goebbels’ chief of staff Gerhard Schach arrived, puffing and out of breath.14 He had received a telex from Bormann at the Wolf’s Lair warning all gauleiters that a full-scale military putsch was under way. At four o’clock the Wolf’s Lair had monitored strange orders issuing from the war department in Bendler Strasse, with the code word Valkyrie. (At four-fifteen Keitel had already begun notifying the Wehrmacht districts that Hitler was alive, that Fromm was dismissed, and that Himmler was replacing him—exactly as prefigured by the news flash to Stockholm the day before).
At five P.M. the plotters in Bendler Strasse were still issuing mutinous signals to army districts signed by ‘Stauffenberg’ and ‘Witzleben’—a field marshal whom Hitler had long ago relieved of his duties. Was there no end to the treachery? Schach told Goebbels he had tried to reach Count von Helldorff, the police chief, but without success. Suspecting foul play Goebbels told Police General Wunenberg to stand by to take over, and sent for Speer.
Speer arrived hatless and more dishevelled than usual. Goebbels received him in his first-floor study and briefed him on what was going on. ‘I want you with me,’ he said. ‘We’ve got to act prudently.’ Since he hardly consulted with Speer at all in the hours that followed it is evident that he wanted the ambitious young man where he could see him.15 Each time he phoned Hitler, Goebbels sent Speer out of the room.16 Taking up position in the street below they could see soldiers in full combat gear, slung with machine guns, ammunition belts, and hand grenades; trucks with more soldiers rattled past towards the Brandenburg Gate. Goebbels pulled his 6·35-millimetre pistol out of his desk and cocked it, ‘Just in case.’
One of his staff, sent out on an errand, returned with word that a soldier had prevented him from leaving the building. Goebbels began to wonder what was keeping Remer.
842 GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH
Only now did he telephone the Wolf’s Lair. Hitler, still shaken by the bomb blast but stoical, was meeting with Mussolini. Goebbels spoke with Julius Schaub, Hitler’s adjutant, but Schaub simultaneously received an incoming call from Hitler’s personal adjutant in Berlin, Alwin-Broder Albrecht. Albrecht reported that a detachment of soldiers had just tried to occupy the Reich Chancellery.17 Schaub passed Goebbels on to Hitler. ‘Mein Führer,’ exclaimed Goebbels, ‘Has the army gone mad?
The guards battalion here is standing guard on my ministry. It’s bad for my image, people might think I need military protection.’18 Hitler was puzzled by Goebbels’ naïvete. ‘Doctor,’ he croaked into the telephone, ‘they’ve tried to kill me.’
His head swimming with pain, his ear drums perforated, Hitler ended the conversation.
Around 6:15 P.M. he phoned Goebbels again. ‘Where’s that radio communiqué?’ he asked. It had slipped the minister’s attention completely. He explained that he would release it as soon as Fritzsche had drafted a reassuring commentary.
‘I want that out now!’ exclaimed Hitler. Goebbels picked up another phone and screamed at Fritzsche. Fritzsche no doubt did the same because at 6:28 P.M. the German home service was interrupted with the special announcement that an attempt had been made on the Führer’s life, but that he had survived.19 BY that time, as ordered, Remer had his cordons in place and General von Hase was taking steps to arrest Goebbels. Remer overheard him briefing Lieutenant-Colonel Hermann Schöne to do so.20 Hase also sent a colonel to the army bomb-disposal school, commanded by a fellow-conspirator, with orders to organize three hundred men into squads which would seize the radio building and propaganda ministry and arrest Goebbels.21 At this moment an emissary arrived from Lieutenant Hagen, who had remained with Goebbels, asking Remer to come to see Dr Goebbels at once, as a putsch attempt was under way. Hase naturally forbade Remer to go; equally naturally, Remer was at first less inclined to trust the Machiavelli of Hermann-Göring Strasse than his own commanding officer, but after wrestling with his dilemma he GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH 843 decided to go, while leaving instructions on what to do if Goebbels should detain im. With that decision, the putsch in Berlin was doomed.
At 6:35 P.M. Remer’s car drove into Goebbels’ forecourt; five minutes later he was brought up to the minister’s study.22 Stiffly at attention, he explained that the Führer had been assassinated.
‘I just spoke with the Führer myself a few minutes ago,’ Goebbels contradicted him. Then: ‘Are you a true national socialist?’ ‘Through and through, Herr Minister! But are you loyal to the Führer?’23 Goebbels gave his word of honour. Remer was still unconvinced. Might he speak with the Führer himself?
It was about seven P.M. The call was put straight through. Hitler knew Remer personally— he had pinned the Oak Leaves on him only a few weeks earlier. ‘Do you recognize my voice?’ he said.
‘Jawohl mein Führer!’ shouted Remer, and slammed his heels together.24 ‘Until the Reichsführer gets there,’ said Hitler, ‘I am making you personally responsible for crushing any plot against the state’s authority.’
Major Martin Korff, commander of a bomb disposal company, arrived with his squad and told Goebbels he had come to arrest him on Hase’s orders. Goebbels and Remer burst out laughing and enlightened the unfortunate major.25 Korf’s comrade Captain Alexander Maître had taken his squad to the propaganda ministry, but promptly placed his men under Remer’s command instead. Remer ordered his men to muster in the garden beneath Goebbels’ windows, then set off back to the traitorous Hase’s HQ, telling the minister that he would phone every twenty minutes to be on the safe side. Hase however had transferred to the Wehrmacht district HQ on Hohenzollerndamm.
On General Olbricht’s orders a Major Friedrich Jacob with troops from the infantry school at Döberitz had occupied the main radio building in Masuren Allee; Olbricht had ordered Jacob to report back when he seized the building. Instead, he phoned Goebbels. The latter sized up the situation in an instant and told the major to accept orders only from him. ‘Nobody broadcasts without my express permission.’26 Wit844 GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH nessing this exchange Speer marvelled at Goebbels’ composure. He was ‘as coldblooded as a warlord on a battlefield,’ he would say the next day.27 Hans Fritzsche sent two or three hundred S.S. men over to the radio building under an S.S. Obersturmbannführer. Together with Jacob they secured the building against the traitors all night and this enabled a recording of Hitler’s speech, made with a sound truck at the Wolf’s Lair, to be piped through from East Prussia and transmitted nationwide at one A.M. This dealt a further death blow to the plot.
NOT for nothing had Goebbels had a company of his senior officials given infantry training after Mussolini’s overthrow in 1943.28 Around seven-thirty P.M. they were ordered to pick up their machine guns and report to No.20 Hermann-Göring Strasse.
Major Remer transferred his command post from Hase’s former HQ to Goebbels’ address as well, a more than symbolic move. Eventually there were about a hundred and fifty soldiers trampling around in Goebbels’ garden in the gathering dusk. He went down and spoke briefly to them, illuminated by the light flooding through the open garden door, arousing a fire of holy indignation in these elderly soldiers about the traitors in high places.
Kalendeer
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Date d'inscription : 06/08/2008

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Message  Kalendeer le Jeu 05 Fév 2009, 09:38

Confusion reigned in Berlin even now. When the ministry staff tried to leave their
building at about eight-fifteen the soldiers still detained them. Major Rudi Balzer,
Martin’s successor, phoned Hase’s HQ; here a Major Baron von Massenbach put him
through to a Colonel Fritz Jäger who said he was just on his way over to the ministry.
29 In fact Hase, making one more attempt to get his man, had ordered Jäger with
two units of military police to arrest Goebbels and occupy S.S. Gruppenführer Ernst
Kaltenbrunner’s R.S.H.A. building; however these units also joined forces with
Remer.30 When a Gestapo official shortly told Major Balzer that the army was staging
a coup, he was incredulous, and protested at this peddling of ‘unfounded rumours’
against the army.
There were unsung heroes in these confusing hours, Hadamowsky later told
Goebbels.31 When Colonel Mertz von Quirnheim had falsely announced at Bendler
Strasse that Hitler was dead, a Lieutenant-Colonel Herber, unconvinced, had left
GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH 845
with about fifteen men for No.20 Hermann-Göring Strasse and armed them with
machine guns and grenades; after confirming that Hitler was alive, they burst in on
General Olbricht, in conference with Stauffenberg and Quirnheim, and arrested
them all after a brief exchange of small-arms fire. There followed an anxious moment
as Remer’s troops arrived, since Herber had no means of contacting either
Hitler or Goebbels to approve of his having arrested these very senior officers.32
Remer had ordered Lieutenant-Colonel Rudolf Schlee to contact this loyal unit at
the war department building. After hearing Schlee’s report, which revealed that the
building was nothing less than the traitors’ headquarters, Goebbels phoned Hitler
and secured authority to smoke them out.33 He told Schlee to go back and arrest
‘every general.’ At about nine P.M. he sent a telex to all the gauleiters—he did not
state by what authority—reporting for their own information that a ‘dilettantish’
plot by reactionary army generals had been uncovered. ‘Gauleiters are called upon
to display extreme vigilance and to ensure that their organisation remains effective
and intact and that they preserve their freedom of action and movement at all costs.
Further directives follow. Heil Hitler. REICHSLEITER DR GOEBBELS.’34
At the same time Bormann, the more usual signatory for such directives, telexed
to the gauleiters his theory that the ‘reactionary criminal vermin’ had staged the
putsch in conjunction with the traitors in Moscow (he named General von Seydlitz
and Count Einsiedel). Had it succeeded, he said, a generals’ clique consisting of
Fromm, Olbricht, and Hoepner were to take power and make peace with Moscow.
Bormann followed with a further message at nine-forty, warning that ‘a General
Beck’ was trying to take over the government. ‘The erstwhile Field-Marshal von
Witzleben is posing as the Führer’s successor. Of course no national socialist gauleiter
will allow himself to be duped by, or accept orders from, these criminals…’35
EVEN now Dr Goebbels’ situation was anything but secure. An armoured brigade
under Colonel Ernest Bolbrinker, one of Rommel’s toughest Afrika Corps regimental
commanders, had arrived at Fehrbelliner Platz from the armoured warfare school
at Krampnitz.36 Another tank unit under Colonel Wolfgang Glaesemer had churned
846 GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH
to a halt in the Tiergarten park, only a few hundred yards west of Goebbels’ residence.
Remer’s adjutant Lieutenant Siebert found out that General Guderian, the
tank commanders’ superior officer, had given them orders to shoot anybody who did
not obey his orders. What was he up to? It was common knowledge that Hitler had
treated him shabbily in December 1941.37
Remer’s predecessor Lieutenant-Colonel Kurt Gehrke offered to go to Fehrbelliner
Platz to find out. Not fully trusting any army officers now, Goebbels sent Hadamowsky,
his chief of staff in the RPL, as well and even when Gehrke reported that Guderian’s
officers were ‘for the Führer’ he was not satisfied and had Remer telephone the
Panzer Reserve Brigade at Cottbus to send a battalion of heavy tanks to Berlin in case
it came to a firefight with Guderian.38
General von Hase was still doggedly trying to salvage Valkyrie. He sent an officer
over to order Remer to return to him. Major Remer, equipped now with Hitler’s
personal authority, replied that on the contrary the general was to come to No.20
Hermann-Göring Strasse. Hase arrived with Schöne and Massenbach. A monocled,
upright officer of striking appearance, Hase put on his most affable air and told Remer
that General Hermann Reinecke (a loyalist Nazi) had ordered him to seize the Bendler
Strasse building. Goebbels intervened and no less affably invited Hase to remain
under his roof as his guest. Hase inquired whether the kitchens could provide a meal,
and there was a courteous exchange about whether a Rhine wine or a Moselle would
complement it better before Goebbels turned to more pressing business. After a
while, Hase asked Remer, ‘Major, could you ask the minister whether I can go—my
wife is waiting for me.’
At this moment however an S.S. man brought a message in to Goebbels. A search
of Hase’s office had turned up a rubber stamp reading ‘Stauffenberg’ and a pad of
blank gate-passes. ‘I am sorry,’ said Goebbels, ‘but I must ask you to remain.’39
Shortly General von Kortzfleisch, the one-eyed commander of Wehrmacht District
III (Berlin) appeared at Goebbels’ door. No doubt anxious to establish his credentials
he snapped at Hase, ‘Well, Mr von Hase! You didn’t expect to find me here!’
He told Goebbels that earlier that day General Olbricht had placed him under close
GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH 847
arrest when he failed to declare for the plotters, and had replaced him with General
Baron von Thüngen (the judge on whom Goebbels’ enemies had banked at that morning’s
hearing against Colonel Martin). Kortzfleisch unhesitatingly identified Fromm,
Olbricht, and Stauffenberg as the ringleaders.40
Goebbels spared him, although there were sound reasons not to. This was an evening
when he turned a blind eye on many an officer’s shortcomings. Even Guderian’s
actions seemed ambivalent, but Goebbels thought highly of him and Hitler would
shrewdly appoint him to replace Zeitzler the next day. All of these men—including
Hase, Witzleben, Thüngen, Schöne—would eventually be hanged. In fact death was
already beginning its harvest. General Fromm had already had his fellow-conspirators
Olbricht, Quirnheim, and Stauffenberg shot by firing squad in the light of motor
headlamps behind the Bendler Strasse building.
He hoped he had thus saved his own neck. Brought up to Goebbels’ study, the sixfoot
two general, until now commander of Germany’s reserve army, demanded to
be allowed to speak by phone with Hitler. Goebbels ordered his arrest. He believed
he was beginning to understand. So this was why the barracks were full of idle troops.
Fromm, Olbricht, & Co had been cynically holding them back for their Valkyrie. ‘I’ll
see to it, general,’ he told Kortzfleisch, ‘that your barracks empty. And that they are
refilled. Bank on it!’ Inadvertently, the traitors had made Total War a near-reality, and
his heart sang with joy.
His house overflowed with fearful ministers, party officials and prisoners. Arriving
there after midnight Major Balzer found fifty people milling around upstairs. Somebody
asked him to keep an eye on Fromm. Still feigning innocence, Fromm related
that after returning from the Wolf’s Lair that afternoon Stauffenberg and Olbricht
had placed him under arrest. ‘The background as described by Fromm was a bit
obscure,’ reported Balzer, ‘and he was very agitated as he regarded his conveyance to
Goebbels’ home as a kind of arrest.’ After ten minutes’ questioning by Kaltenbrunner,
Fromm was removed—‘It certainly looked like an arrest to me,’ reported Balzer the
next day.41 Smoking nervously, Goebbels telephoned Magda in Dresden and told her
some officers had tried to murder Hitler. She burst into tears. More officers arrived
848 GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH
during the night, including General Hermann Reinecke and Colonel-General Stumpff,
commanding Luftwaffe forces within the Reich. Göring telephoned an offer of flak
units to crush the army revolt. Goebbels turned it down. After midnight Himmler
put in a belated appearance. His explanation that he had been ‘directing counteroperations
from outside Berlin’ seemed reasonable enough. In Goebbels’ study
Himmler expressed relief that Goebbels had used the army itself and not the Waffen
S.S. to crush the putsch. There must not be the slightest blemish on the army’s name.42
It was now July 21. The fated day had passed. At three-forty A.M. Bormann issued a
triumphant dispatch. ‘The traitors’ action can be regarded as at an end.’43 Around
four-thirty Goebbels emerged from his study and announced, ‘Gentlemen, the putsch
is over.’44 He escorted Himmler to his car and shook hands with him. By five his
house was almost deserted. He took Naumann, Schwägermann, and Oven upstairs,
pausing on each tread to tell them more tidbits. At the top he briefly shared a little
table with a bronze bust of the Führer. ‘That was like a purifying thunderstorm,’ he
said, irreverently propping an elbow on the famous quiff. He lit another cigarette.
Months later he would reflect, ‘The Twentieth of July was in fact not only the nadir of
our war crisis, but Day One of our resurgence.’45
WHILE Hitler called all his ministers to the Wolf’s Lair on July 21, Goebbels necessarily
stayed in Berlin. At his ministerial conference he narrated what had happened,
though with cosmetic flourishes. The tanks assembling in Berlin, he averred, were
General Guderian’s, which ‘the Führer had provided for protection.’ Kortzfleisch
had been magnificent. Hase, he scoffed, had behaved like a fool on his arrest—asking
if he ‘might telephone his wifey’ and might he have a sandwich and a bottle of wine,
‘preferably a Moselle.’ It was their duty, Goebbels insisted, to ensure that no stain
attached to the army’s other generals. Himmler, he revealed, had told him that Fromm
had kept six hundred thousand soldiers idle in Germany; these would now be released
to the fighting front. Thus, this putsch was a real breakthrough toward Total
War.46
GOEBBELS. MASTERMIND OF THE THIRD REICH 849
Some of his listeners remained unconvinced. Immanuel Schäffer wondered how
all this could have escaped Himmler’s notice. And what about Göring’s wiretappers?
47 The London press had a field day, with sarcastic references to several of
Goebbels’ previous utterances. Goebbels instructed his outposts to organise spontaneous
open-air demonstrations of the public’s happiness and joy.48
Inevitably, he claimed that Hitler’s ‘miraculous escape’ was further proof that their
Führer was protected by Providence. Otherwise he ordered the putsch glossed over,
like the Hess affair. He released no word of the plotters’ aims, let alone of the true
scale of the conspiracy which had extended from the eastern front to Paris and Vienna.
49 The traitors remained for Goebbels a ‘minuscule clique of reactionary officers.’
Despite all his efforts however there was enduring damage to the army; it violated
sensibilities that their traitors had been hanged, rather than shot. Officers felt that
their entire caste had been impugned.50 Indeed, the Twentieth of July left residual
issues which were still unresolved in Germany fifty years later.
Kalendeer
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